This experiment provided me with the opportunity to learn and utilize proper extraction techniques. Extraction can be used for both liquids and solids because it depends solely on the solubility of the given substances. There are three different types of extraction methods: solid-liquid, liquid-liquid, and acid-base. For this experiment, solid-liquid extraction was performed. The solid was a mixture containing equal parts of Benzoic Acid (a strong acid), p-t-Butylphenol (a weak acid), and Acetanilide (a neutral compound). The solvent used to dissolve and separate the solid was t-Butyl methyl ether. There were three different times when extraction was used in this experiment. Two bases were used to extract the strong and weak acids, whereas the neutral compound was extracted by evaporation. When properly executed, three pure compounds can be extracted from one solid mixture, but in low amounts.
Solid-liquid extraction generally refers to the removal of compounds in a solid mixture using a liquid solvent based on the differences in solubility (1). Extraction methods are used worldwide. They are still being researched and improved to this day due to the many applications in the real world. Coffee, medicines from medicinal plants, vegetable oils, gasoline and kerosene, and many other everyday materials are produced by extraction. The most common example is the extraction of coffee or tea. This is done by extracting caffeine and other water-soluble compounds from the coffee beans or tea bags using hot water (1). The fundamental theory behind solid-liquid extraction is the removal of soluble material from an insoluble solid. The steps of solid-liquid extraction include diffusing the solvent into the solid mixture and dissolving the solutes with the solvent (making the solid into a liquid phase). In order to recover a pure sample, the extraction must be followed by filtration or recrystallization.
This experiment ca...